Magnetometers measure the direction, strength or variation of a magnetic field at a particular location.
Two types of magnetometers exist: scalar and vector magnetometers. Scalar magnetometers measure the absolute (scalar) value of the magnetic flux intensity and include different types such as proton precesion, Overhauser effect and ionized gas. Vector magnetometers can measure the magnitude and direction of the total magnetic field in a specific direction relative to the instrument's orientation. These magnetometers include different types such as rotating coil, Hall effect, magnetoresistive, fluxgate, search coil, etc. More than one vector magnetometer can be used for capturing different components of the magnetic field.
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