Bay of Fundy

ONC has collaborated with the Fundy Ocean Research Centre for Energy (FORCE) as they develop their environmental monitoring systems. Integrating FORCE data in the Oceans 2.0 portal, ONC aims to contribute to long-term scientific monitoring of all oceans in Canada. On a flood tide, 160 billion tonnes of seawater flows into the Bay of Fundy and the vertical tide range can be over 16 metres. The Bay of Fundy is a particular location of interest for study, as it is potentially the best site in North America for tidal power generation.

Gully Canyon

Gully Canyon is a Marine Protected Area (MPA) located off Nova Scotia near Sable Island. The submarine canyon was formed due to the movements of glacial ice and meltwater 150,000 to 450,000 years ago and hosts a rich diversity of marine ecosystems and species. Some megafauna that inhabit Gully Canyon include diverse species of deepwater corals and endangered northern bottlenose dolphins. In 2017, ONC partnered with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans to archive and store data from this unique area.

  • explore the INCISE 2016 Submarine Canyon Symposium which brought together a community of submarine canyon scientists to discuss new technology, marine policy and conservation of environments such as Gully Canyon

Site List

Bay of Fundy - Minas Passage

Depth: 0-60 m
Setting: Bay of Fundy
Studies: Currently tidal conditions, weather. Future will include currents, hydrophones, scanning sonars and others
Site Fly-through:

The Fundy Standard from FORCE on Vimeo.


Atlantic Observatory Map

Bay of Fundy at Low Tide
Low Tide
Bay of Fundy  High Tide
High Tide

Bay of Fundy

On a flood tide, 160 billion tonnes of seawater flows into the Bay of Fundy — more than four times the estimated combined flow of all the world’s freshwater rivers during the same 6-hour interval.

The vertical tidal range can be over 16 metres — giving the Bay of Fundy the highest tides in the world.  The horizontal range can be as much as 5 kilometres, exposing vast areas of ocean floor.

The tidal currents in the Bay of Fundy are fast, reaching 10 knots (5.1 m/s) at peak surface speed.

Research from California-based Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) identifies the Bay of Fundy as potentially the best site in North America for tidal power generation, with a world-class resource close to an existing electricity grid.

In the Minas Passage alone, EPRI estimated a nearly 300 megawatt potential (equal to enough power for about 100,000 homes).

More recent research suggests there is more than 7,000 megawatts of potential in the Minas Passage, 2,500 megawatts of which can be extracted without significant effects. Models indicate upwards of 50,000 megawatts of energy exists in the entire Bay of Fundy.

The Guinness Book of World Records states the world’s highest average tides are in the Bay of Fundy, where the mean spring range in the Minas Basin is 14.5 metres (47.6 feet). The highest tide on record in the Bay was 21.6 metres (70.9 feet) in 1869.